Ray Martin

Major and Classification


Faculty Mentor

  • Peter Mancall, Ph.D.


  • History /Administration

McNair Project

Tolowa History 1983 to Now

There has already been one published history of the Tolowa nation. However like many histories written about the first peoples of the United States Understanding Tolowa Histories by James Collins is written by a non- member. Though it is great that some effort has been taken to study the Tolowa and their unique history, Collin’s study is lacking in that it does not have the perspective of coming from a member of the Tolowa nation. This study Tolowa History 1983 to Now focuses on the Tolowa’s struggle to adapt to the federal government’s new policy of self determination, preserve its cultural identity, and ensure its survival. This paper focuses on three events occurring in the 1980s which are largely responsible for where the Tolowa nation now finds itself. This paper will explore the impact that these three events have had on the Tolowa nation and its people and the effect that these three events will continue to have if the Tolowa nation continues down its present course. By looking at the impact these three significant events have had on the Tolowa nation and what the future likely holds for the Tolowa people through the lens of a tribal member this study will offer the first look at Tolowa history from the eyes of a member of the Tolowa nation.